Income Tax Deductions on Salary Income [Full Guide]

Income tax is a crucial component of a country’s revenue system, and India is no exception. The Indian tax system is designed to collect taxes from individuals based on their income, commonly referred to as income tax. When it comes to salaried individuals, understanding the nuances of income tax on salary income and the deductions available is of paramount importance. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the concepts of income tax on salary income and explore various deductions allowed under the Indian tax laws. Additionally, we will provide illustrative examples to help you grasp the practical aspects of income tax and deductions.

Income Tax on Salary Income Explained

Income tax on salary income is the tax imposed on the earnings received by an individual from their employment. The Income Tax Act, 1961, governs income tax in India. It categorizes taxpayers into various income slabs and levies tax accordingly. The income tax rates may change from year to year, and taxpayers need to stay updated with the latest changes to ensure accurate tax calculations.

As of the financial year 2023-2024, the income tax slabs (Old Regime) for individual taxpayers below the age of 60 years are as follows:

  1. Income up to INR 2,50,000: No tax is levied on individuals whose total income does not exceed INR 2,50,000. This is known as the basic exemption limit.
  2. Income from INR 2,50,001 to INR 5,00,000: A tax rate of 5% is applied to the income falling within this slab.
  3. Income from INR 5,00,001 to INR 10,00,000: A tax rate of 20% is applicable to the income falling within this range.
  4. Income above INR 10,00,000: For income exceeding INR 10,00,000, a tax rate of 30% is applied.

*(Health and Education Cess and Surcharge are not considered for simple understanding)

To illustrate the calculation of income tax on salary income, let’s consider an example:

Example 1: Mr. A is a salaried individual earning a monthly salary of INR 50,000. Additionally, he receives an annual bonus of INR 1,50,000. Let’s calculate his income tax liability for the financial year 2023-2024.

Monthly Salary: INR 50,000 * 12 = INR 6,00,000
Annual Bonus: INR 1,50,000
Total Income: INR 6,00,000 + INR 1,50,000 = INR 7,50,000

Mr. A’s total income falls within the slab of INR 5,00,001 to INR 10,00,000. Therefore, his tax liability can be calculated as follows:

Tax on INR 5,00,000 (at 5%): INR 2,50,000 * 0.05 = INR 12,500
Tax on the remaining INR 2,50,000 (at 20%): INR 2,50,000 * 0.20 = INR 50,000

Total Tax Liability: INR 12,500 + INR 50,000 = INR 62,500 + 4% H.E.C.

Understanding Deductions in Salary Income

Deductions in salary income play a significant role in reducing the taxable income and, subsequently, the overall tax liability. The Indian tax laws offer several deductions under various sections of the Income Tax Act, which allow taxpayers to claim exemptions for specific expenses, investments, and contributions. Here are some essential deductions available to salaried individuals:

Section 80C – Investment in Tax-Saving Instruments

Section 80C of the Income Tax Act provides deductions for investments made in various tax-saving instruments, up to a maximum of INR 1.5 lakhs per financial year. Some popular investments eligible for deduction under Section 80C include:

  • Employee Provident Fund (EPF): Contributions made by both the employer and the employee towards EPF are eligible for deduction under this section.
  • Public Provident Fund (PPF): The contributions made by an individual to their PPF account are eligible for deduction.
  • Equity-Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS): Investments made in ELSS mutual funds qualify for deduction under Section 80C.
  • National Savings Certificate (NSC): Investments in NSC are eligible for deduction.
  • 5-year Fixed Deposit with Banks: The 5-year tax-saving fixed deposit with banks is also eligible for deduction under this section.
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana (SSY): For individuals investing in SSY for their girl child, deductions are available.
  • Stamp Duty and Registration Fees for Purchase of New House Property
  • Life Insurance Premiums (max 10% of Sum Assured or Premium Paid)
  • PMJJBY and PMSBY (Small but Available)
  • Senior Citizen Saving Scheme (SCSS) is also available for Senior Citizen Tax Payer
  • PMVVY by LIC of India is also available for Senior Citizen Tax Payer

Example 2: Let’s consider Ms. B, who earns a monthly salary of INR 60,000. She has invested INR 1,50,000 in a PPF account during the financial year 2023-2024. Let’s calculate her taxable income and tax liability after considering the deduction under Section 80C.

Monthly Salary: INR 60,000 * 12 = INR 7,20,000
PPF Investment: INR 1,50,000
Total Taxable Income: INR 7,20,000 – INR 1,50,000 = INR 5,70,000

Since Ms. B’s total income is now within the INR 5,00,001 to INR 10,00,000 slab, her tax liability will be calculated accordingly.

Tax on INR 2,50,000 (at 5%): INR 2,50,000 * 0.05 = INR 12,500
Tax on the remaining INR 70,000 (at 20%): INR 70,000 * 0.20 = INR 14,000

Total Tax Liability: INR 12,500 + INR 14,000 = INR 26,500

After claiming the deduction under Section 80C, Ms. B’s tax liability reduces to INR 26,500.

Section 80D – Health Insurance Premium

Section 80D allows taxpayers to claim deductions on the premiums paid for health insurance policies. The deduction limit varies based on the individuals covered by the policy.

  • For individuals, their spouse, and dependent children, the maximum deduction allowed is INR 25,000 per annum.
  • For senior citizens, the maximum deduction allowed is INR 50,000 per annum.

Section 24(b) – Home Loan Interest

Section 24(b) of the Income Tax Act allows taxpayers to claim deductions on the interest paid on home loans. For self-occupied properties, the maximum deduction allowed is Rs. 2 lakhs per financial year.

Section 10(14) – House Rent Allowance (HRA)

Salaried individuals often receive House Rent Allowance (HRA) as part of their salary to meet their accommodation expenses. The HRA received is eligible for tax exemptions subject to certain conditions. The least of the following three amounts is exempt from tax:

  • The actual HRA received.
  • Rent paid in excess of 10% of the salary.
  • 50% of the salary (for metro cities) or 40% of the salary (for non-metro cities).

Section 10(14) – Leave Travel Allowance (LTA)

Leave Travel Allowance (LTA) allows for tax exemptions on expenses incurred during domestic travel within India. The exemption is limited to the actual travel cost, subject to certain conditions.

Section 80E – Education Loan Interest

Section 80E allows individuals to claim deductions on the interest paid for education loans. This deduction is available only for the interest amount and not on the principal repayment.


Understanding income tax on salary income and the deductions available under Indian tax laws is essential for every taxpayer. By familiarizing themselves with the tax-saving options and utilizing various deductions, individuals can optimize their tax liability while complying with the tax regulations. It is crucial to stay informed about the latest updates in tax laws to make informed financial decisions and take advantage of tax-saving opportunities effectively. their is more income tax deductions but it is available for different Taxable Incomes.

Common FAQs about Income Tax on Salary Income and Deductions

Can I claim deductions under both Section 80C and Section 80D simultaneously?

Yes, taxpayers can claim deductions under both Section 80C and Section 80D independently. These sections allow deductions for different types of investments and expenses, providing taxpayers with opportunities to optimize their tax savings.

Is the interest paid on a personal loan eligible for deductions?

No, interest paid on personal loans is not eligible for any tax deductions. Only interest paid on specific loans like home loans and education loans is eligible for deductions under the respective sections.

How can I claim HRA if I don’t receive it as part of my salary?

If you do not receive HRA as part of your salary, you can still claim the deduction under Section 80GG for the rent paid for your accommodation. However, certain conditions need to be fulfilled to avail of this deduction.

Can I claim deductions for premiums paid on policies for my siblings?

No, deductions under Section 80D are limited to the individual, their spouse, children, and parents. Premiums paid on policies for siblings are not eligible for deductions.

Are there any additional deductions available for senior citizens?

Yes, senior citizens are eligible for higher deductions under various sections, such as Section 80D and Section 80DDB, which pertain to medical expenses.

Can I claim deductions for donations made to charitable organizations?

Yes, donations made to eligible charitable organizations qualify for deductions under Section 80G of the Income Tax Act.

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